Cause and Reason for the 19th Amendment: Women's Suffrage
Women were once treated as second class citizens. Men had the right to vote - women did not. The early 1800's saw women arguing that they should have the same voting rights as men - refer to the Women's Suffrage Movement. In 1848 Lucretia Mott (1793-1880) and Elizabeth Cady Stanton (1815-1902) raised awareness of the women's cause and organized a national convention to demand the right to vote. This convention was largely responsible for the women's rights movement. The activist Susan B. Anthony (1820-1906) joined the women's rights movement in 1852 and dedicated her life to women's suffrage, women's labor organizations and the abolition of slavery and spread the ideas across the country. The 15th Amendment, ratified in 1870, gave the vote to black men but not to women.
The 19th Amendment on Women's Suffrage: The Susan B. Anthony Amendment
The 'Susan B. Anthony Amendment' was introduced to Congress in 1878 by Senator A.A. Sargent of California and later became the basis of the 19th amendment to the United States Constitution. Refer to the following article for Facts and a History Timeline of Women's suffrage in the United States.
Territories and States that gave women the right to vote before the 19th AmendmentTerritories and States that gave women the right to vote
Section 1 of 14th Amendment, ratified in 1868, implied equality by saying that states may not deny any person the equal protection of the laws, however, most of the states continued to restrict or prohibit women's suffrage. The territory of Wyoming was the first to give women the vote in 1869. Other Territories and states followed the lead of Wyoming and also gave women the right to vote before the 19th Amendment.
before the 19th Amendment
Territory of Wyoming 1869Wyoming 1890
Territory of Utah 1870
Territory of Washington 1883
Territory of Montana 1887
Territory of Alaska 1913
New York 1917
South Dakota 1918
19th Amendment: Woman Suffrage Associations
The National Woman Suffrage Association (NWSA) was founded by Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton, and the American Woman Suffrage Association (AWSA) was founded by Lucy Stone and Julia Ward Howe. The two associations merged and growing numbers of women demanded the right to vote and agitated for an amendment to the Constitution and waged a state-by-state campaign. The outbreak of World War 1 saw President Woodrow Wilson declaring that it was a "war for democracy". This outraged women and activists in woman suffrage, called suffragettes, increased their demands for the right to vote. Women were arrested, imprisoned, went on hunger strike and and force fed, to the horror of many US citizens. President Wilson bowed down to pressure and the 19th Amendment that finally gave women the right to vote was ratified in 1920.
19th Amendment Text - The Nineteenth Amendment
The original full text of the 19th Amendment of the Constitution is as follows:
19th Amendment Text
The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex.
Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
19th Amendment - Video of the Presidency of Woodrow Wilson
The above information provides the text, definition and summary of the amendment. The following Woodrow Wilson video will give you additional important facts and dates about both the personal life and political life of the 28th President of the United States whose presidency spanned from March 4, 1913 to March 4, 1921.